C Corporation

A C-corp is a legal entity separate from its owners and shareholders. For this reason, owners and shareholders are not liable for the C-corp. C-corps create a double taxation situation because the corporation is taxed on its income, and owners/shareholders are taxed on their income at the personal level.

C-corps must hold at least one annual meeting. These annual meetings must be recorded for transparency (for investors). Percentage ownership within the company must also be disclosed. Bylaws must be kept at the company’s location. The corporation must file annual reports and related documents so investors can fully evaluate the performance of the company.

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Cap and Trade

Cap and trade is a term that refers to government regulation programs that cap the emissions of certain chemicals, especially carbon monoxide. Cap and trade is an alternative to a carbon tax. The regulation is meant to be designed in such a way that it doesn’t do adverse damage to the industries being regulated. Part of cap and trade is that it provides companies an incentive to begin switching to cleaner, alternative forms of energy.

Cap and trade involve issuing emissions credits to companies. Those companies that emit dangerous chemicals use up credits. If all of their available credits are used, they are taxed. Those with leftover credits can sell them to other companies. The total number of credits declines over time, pushing companies towards cleaner alternatives.

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Capital is defined as a type of financial asset that includes funds held in a deposits account or a physical factor production, e.g. manufacturing equipment and facilities and buildings used to produce and store goods. To be classified as capital, assets must serve as an ongoing source of service to the business used to generate wealth. Combined with labor, capital is combined with individuals who exchange their time and skills for money to create value.

“Capital” and “money” are commonly interchanged, but the two terms are distinct. Capital is deployed to crate growth and expand a company’s capacity to provide its service or develop its product, while money is a means purchasing and developing a company’s specific source of capital.

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Capital Asset

Capital assets, for corporations and business entities, are assets that have a useful life longer than one year and are not held for sale in the ordinary course of business.

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Capital Budget

Capital budgeting or investment appraisal, as it is sometimes called, is budgeting for large investment projects. These projects include building a new plant, a new product, buying new machinery, or even another company. A capital expenditure (CAPEX) is not an expense. However, CAPEX can be depreciated over several years.

Investments in CAPEX generally take several years before they begin turning a profit. Analysts will determine at what point the investment is expected to generate a profit, and the minimum profit expected by the company, which is called a hurdle rate. When comparing two projects, the discounted cash flow method is used as part of the analysis. Comparing each project’s NPV and internal rate of return, analysts can make a determination about which project the company should decide on.

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Capital Expenditures (CapEx)

Capital Expenditures are, in the context of commercial real estate, funds used by a company to acquire or upgrade physical assets that cannot be expensed as

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Capital Gain

Capital gain is an increase in the value of a capital asset (investment or real estate) that gives it a higher worth than the basis of the asset. Capital gains can also

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Capital Gains Tax

Capital gains tax is tax payable on capital gains realized from the sale of a capital asset. Capital Gains Taxes are assessed by the federal government in the United States

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Capital Gains Yield

The capital gains yield of a stock represents the absolute return from time 1 to time 2. It is calculated using the formula: (p2 - p1) / p1, where p1 is the price at time 1 and p2 is the price at time 2. For example, the price of the stock ABC is $100 on day 1. On day 5, it is $105. Its capital gains yield is (105 - 100) / 100 = 0.0105 or a 1.05% gain.

Capital gains yield is often used to find out the return of a stock from the time of purchase to the time of sale. In the above example, the investor would have purchased the stock at $100 and netted a $5 gain in dollar terms, resulting in a 1.05% gain. Capital gains yield doesn’t include stock dividends, which is considered total return.

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Capital Goods

Capital goods are tools created for a business to use in producing consumer goods. Capital goods have a useful life of over one year and are considered tangible assets. Examples of capital goods include buildings, vehicles, machinery, and equipment.

Because capital goods have a long lifespan, they are depreciated rather than expensed. Depreciation accounts for the loss of the asset’s value each year of its lifetime. Depreciation is taken by determining the capital goods’ lifespan, then taking partial depreciation each year. For example, a capital good with a lifespan of 20 years is depreciated at the rate of 1/20 per year.

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Capital Improvement

See Capital Expenditures (CapEx).

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Capital Market

Capital markets direct money from investors looking for opportunities to companies seeking funding. Companies can seek two forms of capital — equity or debt. Investors also come in two types — retail and institutional. As well, there are two types of capital markets — primary and secondary. The primary market is where new securities are issued and sold. The secondary market is where existing securities are sold. The most common capital markets are stock exchanges and the bond market. In its most basic form, a capital market is a venue for trading financial instruments.

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Capital Reserves

In the context of commercial real estate, capital reserves are funds designated for long term capital investment projects or

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Capital Stack

Capital stack is a term used to describe the composition of total capital invested in a project. Listed from most risky to least risky, capital stacks in real estate are usually comprised of common equity, preferred equity, mezzanine debt, and senior debt. Usually, the riskier positions in the capital stack tend to earn higher expected returns due to the increased risk taken on.

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There are two meanings for capitalization as it relates to accounting and finance. In accounting, capitalization refers to a method by which a firm expenses the costs associated with the acquisition of an asset over the useful life of the asset rather than at the time it is acquired. In finance, capitalization is a measure of a firm’s book value (the sum of its stock, long-term debt, and retained earnings) or its market value (the product of the number of outstanding shares and the stock price).

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Capitalization Rate (Cap Rate)

Capitalization rate is the initial rate of return an investment property is expected to generate. The Capitalization Rate is determined by dividing the

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Carry Costs

Carry costs are any expenses the owner must pay on investment property over the course of owning it. These costs usually include utilities, debt service payments, taxes and insurance, among other items.

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Cash is legal tender, which is issued by a country’s government. Rather than carrying around goods or something else for trading, cash reduces weight and simplifies transactions. Cash is lightweight and small, which makes transporting it easy. It represents specific values of goods, which makes the exchange of cash for goods straightforward.

Cash is also considered liquid since it can be immediately exchanged for goods or services. On a corporate balance sheet, cash is considered a current asset — meaning, the most liquid asset available to the company. The cash flow statement shows all cash coming in and going out of a company, such as cash used to pay for expenses.

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Cash And Carry

Cash and carry is an arbitrage technique used with a stock or commodity and the associated futures contract. When there is a spread or difference in the stock and futures prices, arbitrage is possible. For example, buying the S&P cash index and shorting the S&P futures contract. The two eventually come back into price alignment, as the cash index rises and the futures drop (or vice versa).

There are risks to this strategy, which are called carry cost. The arbitrageur holds the futures contract until expiration, which also means the storage of the physical asset, such as oil or wheat. This storage of the asset is called carrying the asset. Another carry cost is margin on the futures contract. Non-physical assets such as the S&P 500 do not have to be stored, which means its carry cost is only margin.

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Cash Flow

Cash flow is the net amount of cash moving in and out of a business, usually measured during a specified, limited period of time.

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Cash Reserves

Cash reserves, in the context of commercial real estate, is cash and cash equivalents held in short term accounts used to cover things such as

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Cash Sweep

A cash sweep is the use of a borrower’s excess free cash flow to pay down a loan’s principal balance or build a reserve account for the benefit of the lender. Commonly used in situations where a borrower’s cash flow is uncertain or volatile, a lender may implement a cash sweep provision to protect itself from the financial risk that may occur in years where a borrower’s cash flow may not be sufficient enough to satisfy its financial obligations to the lender.

A cash sweep is commonly activated in scenarios where a borrower fails to meet certain financial requirements or loan covenants as laid out in the loan terms. These may include failure to meet a minimum debt service coverage ratio, leverage ratio, or debt to equity ratio.
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Cash-On-Cash Return

Cash-on-cash return is the ratio of annual before-tax cash flow from an investment to the total amount of cash invested, represented as a percentage.

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Census Tracts

Small, relatively permanent statistical subdivisions of a county or equivalent entity that are updated by local participants prior to each decennial census as part of the Census Bureau's Participant Statistical Areas Program.  The primary purpose of census tracts is to provide a stable set of geographic units for the presentation of statistical data.

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Central Bank

A central bank regulates the money supply, interest rates, and available credit of a nation or several nations (such as with the European Central Bank). In the United States, the central bank is called the FED. Its chairman is Jerome Powell. The FED is able to control the money supply by buying or selling treasury bonds. It regulates the amount of deposits that commercial banks must have. The FED sets interest rates as well and acts as a lender of last resort. In times of financial distress, the FED engages in activities to ensure liquidity across financial markets. These activities can include involvement in the REPO market, bond market, and even purchasing certain ETFs, as was the case in the 2020 financial crisis.

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Certificate of Deposit

A certificate of deposit (CD) is a savings certificate issued by a financial institution that has a fixed maturity date and interest rate that restricts the certificate holder’s access to funds from the time of issuance to the specified maturity date. CDs are tools that financial institutions and banks use to generate deposit growth and are typically issued electronically. Financial institutions typically charge a fee if an investor wishes to obtain access to funds prior to the maturity date.

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Certificate of Occupancy (CO)

Certificate of Occupancy is a document issued by a local government agency, certifying that a building meets certain requirements and codes that indicate its fitness to house tenants. These requirements differ across building types, as well as cities and states, and are usually required to be met by new developments.

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Certified Public Accountant

A certified public accountant (CPA) is a designation bestowed upon an individual by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) when that individual satisfies the educational requirements and passes the CPA exam. In order to be deemed a CPA, an individual must obtain a bachelor’s degree in business administration, finance or accounting, have no fewer than two years of public accounting experience, complete 150 hours of education, and pass a certification examination.

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Chamber of Commerce

A chamber of commerce is a group of business members that periodically meet to discuss business-related topics. The chamber of commerce often lobbies the local government to form business-favorable regulations and policies. Most cities and states have a chamber of commerce. Although nations and regions within a nation may have a chamber of commerce as well. The chamber of commerce meetings are a great time for local business owners to meet each other and local government members as well.

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Chapter 11 Bankruptcy

Chapter 11 bankruptcy is a reorganization of a business’s debts and is not an asset liquidation like a Chapter 7 bankruptcy is. Chapter 11 is the most complex and costly form of bankruptcy. A court decides how a company’s debts will be restructured, although the business or individual has the first chance to propose a reorganization plan. Most companies remain open and operational during Chapter 11.

If the case involves fraud, dishonesty, or gross incompetence, the court will appoint a trustee to run the business. All business decisions must then go through the court.

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Charitable Remainder Unitrust

Charitable remainder unitrust is a “split-interest” structure. It first disperses income to its beneficiaries for a specific period of time. Once this period of time expires, the trust donates the remainder of its assets to charities, which are also beneficiaries of the trust. This structure allows the trustor to save on taxes. A charitable remainder unitrust is a tax-exempt irrevocable trust. An irrevocable trust means it cannot be changed or terminated without the beneficiary’s permission.

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Checking Account

A checking account is a liquid type of account individuals and businesses use to deposit and withdraw funds at a financial institution or bank. Consumers and businesses can access funds held in checking accounts via checks, automated teller machines and electronic debits. Banks allow unlimited withdrawals and deposits on checking accounts.

Checking accounts typically do not offer high interest rates because of the high level of liquidity it offers to customers. Funds held in a checking account at a chartered banking institution regulated are guaranteed by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) up to $250,0000 per individual depositor

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Closing Cost Expenses

See Closing Costs.

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Closing Costs

Closing costs are expenses over and above the price of the property that buyers and sellers normally incur to complete a real estate transaction.

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Co-tenancy Clause

A lease provision that protects retail tenants in the event that major tenants leave an area or a certain percentage of the retail center they occupy is vacant. Based on the belief that high occupancy with strong tenants drives traffic, co-tenancy clauses remedy smaller tenants when larger tenants vacate the premises. These remedies can include a reduction in rent or the ability to terminate a current lease.

Heavily negotiated in lease contracts, co-tenancy clauses create a degree of risk for the landlord. Contingent on the property, lawful acts of third-party tenants, co-tenancy clauses may create a “domino effect” of vacancies in the event that a major tenant does not comply with the terms its lease.

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A property or asset that a borrower pledges to a lender in the event of default. When a borrower fails to make debt service payments as stated in the loan agreement, collateral looks to secure repayment of the loan, providing protection to the lender. In real estate, typically the property that is being financed by the loan serves as collateral, whether this be a house or commercial property. Other common types of collateral include: plant and equipment, marketable securities, and personal property.

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Collision Insurance

Collision insurance is automobile insurance. It covers collisions that are under your control. Collision insurance shouldn’t be confused with comprehensive insurance, which covers acts of God, such as weather-related events or a deer jumping in front of your car. Collision insurance is extra coverage on top of basic insurance coverage.

Collision insurance covers the following incidents: Your car is the only one involved in an accident, collision with another car, collision with an obstacle in the road, and pothole damage. Collision insurance does not cover theft, hail, flood, fire, vandalism, natural disaster, or being struck by an animal.

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Commercial Bank

A commercial bank is where most everyone does their local banking. This is in contrast to an investment bank. Commercial banks offer a range of financial products, including loans, mortgages, checking, savings, CDs, retirement products, credit cards, and more. These banks make their money from lending.

When you open a deposit account such as a saving, checking, or CD, you are basically lending the bank money. As a lender, you expect to be paid interest, which the bank does. Although it is a very small amount. The bank uses your funds as loans to its customers. Because the bank lends at a higher rate than the interest it pays on deposit products, it is able to generate a profit.

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Commercial Mortgage-Backed Securities (CMBS)

Commercial Mortgage-Backed Securities are securities collateralized by loans secured by commercial property. A CMBS loan is a first-mortgage secured by commercial real estate which is

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Commercial Real Estate

Commercial real estate is real estate intended to generate income or profit for the owner of the property. Generally includes all categories of non-residential real estate

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Commercialization involves taking a product or service and making it widely available to a broader audience. For businesses, the goal is to create such products for less than they are sold to the public. Product costs include production, distribution, marketing, sales, and customer support.

Commercialization includes three different stages: The ideation stage, the business process stage, and the stakeholder stage. These stages include brainstorming, deciding if there is enough demand for a product at the right price point, and understanding of the company will be able to benefit its stakeholders by selling the product.

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Common Area

Common areas are the areas of a building that are available for the nonexclusive use of all its tenants, such as lobbies, corridors, and parking lots.
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Common Area Maintenance (CAM) Charges

Common area maintenance charges are the contribution or fee paid collectively by individual tenants for the maintenance and upkeep of the non-exclusive areas of the premises. 

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Common Stock

Common stock allows the holder of the stock a percentage share of ownership within a company. Owning shares gives the owner voting power to elect members to the board of directors and vote on other company matters. However, without a significant holding of common stock within a company, the owner’s vote may not have much sway.

Owners of common stock are the last to receive any assets in the event of bankruptcy (liquidation). Debts are first in line, which includes bond and preferred shareholders. If anything is left over, which it usually isn’t, common stock shareholders may receive some compensation. On the positive side, common stock generally outperforms debt instruments such as bonds.

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Community Development Financial Institutions Fund (CDFI Fund)

Promotes economic revitalization in distressed communities throughout the United States by providing financial assistance and information to community development financial institutions (CDFI)

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Comparables (Comps)

In the context of real estate transactions, properties similar to the one being sold or appraised used to determine the fair market value of the property.

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Comparative Advantage

Comparative advantage is a term that describes a firm’s ability to produce a good or service at a lower cost than its competition. A comparative advantage in terms of production enables the firm to sell its good or service at a lower price and a higher margin than its competition. 

Comparative advantages cannot be explained without understanding opportunity costs, which are measured as the potential benefit an individual misses out on when choosing one course of action over another. On an individual basis, a college degree provides an individual a comparative advantage over not having a college degree, as that credential provides the individual the ability to convince employers that he or she is capable of providing tangible value to a firm.

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Competitive Advantage

A competitive advantage is what separates a firm from its competitors in the marketplace and makes it attractive to its customers. There are two types of competitive advantages — comparative and differential.

A comparative advantage is mainly a price difference. While any firm can lower its prices, not all can do so without greatly decreasing profits. Firms that have a comparative advantage are able to produce products more efficiently than their competitors. This results in a lower cost of production, often due to the use of technology. Such firms are able to maintain a higher profit margin than that of their competitors. Because profit margins are higher, these firms have higher returns as well.

A comparative advantage can also be the result of the firm’s location. For example, a firm operating in China is able to take advantage of lower labor costs. A comparative advantage doesn’t mean that a firm creates a better product. Instead, it means a firm creates the same product at a better value (i.e., lower price).

A differential advantage means a firm's products are viewed as higher quality and more unique compared to its competitors. These firms often have a strong brand. They have superior products and can charge premium prices. Apple is a great example of a company that has a differential advantage. It has a well-recognized brand, creates high-quality products, and charges premium prices.

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Complementary Goods

Complementary goods create value when used together but offer little to no value when used alone. An example is hamburger patties and buns. Consumers will often purchase them together. As stand alone products, they don’t offer much value. Additionally, if the price of one complimentary product increases, such as hamburger patties, sales in the other related product (buns) will decrease, along with sales of hamburger patties.

This relationship between the two goods is also referred to as the joint demand nature of the two products. The formal terminology for the relationship is called cross-elasticity. As demand for one of the complementary products increases, so does the demand for the other product and vice versa as demand falls.

There are two types of cross-elasticity for complementary goods — weak and strong. Strong elasticity is as described above, where there is close to a 1-to-1 relationship between the two products. Weak elasticity means that as demand for one product decreases, it doesn’t have as much impact on the other product. For example, if the price of coffee rises and demand falls, it doesn’t affect the demand for creamer, since there are many uses for creamer outside of coffee. Even though coffee and creamer are complementary goods, creamer is a complementary good for many other products.

Complementary goods can also be affected by price changes in competing products. If the price of steak decreases, sales of hamburger patties and buns will both decrease, as they are seen as inferior goods compared to steak.

Complementary goods shouldn’t be confused with substitute goods. Substitute goods are different products or services that satisfy the same consumer need. The iPhone and Samsung phones are different products. If the price for one phone increases, consumers may switch to the other to satisfy their mobile communication needs.

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Compound Interest

Compound interest is “interest-on-interest”, or the ability of a financial instrument to generate earnings on its earnings.

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A benefit given by a buyer, seller, landlord or tenant in order to help facilitate a real estate transaction. Concessions can be given in both residential and commercial real estate, and are often predetermined during the negotiation period. Concessions are often included in closing costs, but come in various forms: covering moving expenses and repair costs, rent reduction, or even cash back to the buyer.

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Concurrent Exchange

Concurrent exchange refers to a method of executing a tax deferred exchange (aka 1031 exchange or like-kind exchange) where the sale of the relinquished property

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Condemnation is the seizure of property by a public authority for a public purpose. Condemnation typically occurs when a taxpayer owns property in a place

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Conflict Theory

Conflict theory, as put forth by Karl Marx, says that societies are in constant conflict over competition for limited resources. Marx also believed that the rich and powerful would try to remain that way at the expense of poorer members of society. However, every group/class within a society will work to maximize their own benefits.

As it relates to the financial crisis, banks took on excessive risks because the government turned a blind eye to their activities. They were bailed out by a government that used funds, which it said it previously did not have for social programs, thus benefiting the rich and powerful. The poor received nothing. Marx would say that the financial crisis was inevitable due to conflict theory.

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Conservation Easement

A landowner voluntarily agrees to sell or donate certain rights associated with his or her property – often the right to subdivide or develop – and

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Constructive Receipt

Constructive receipt is direct access to tax-deferred like-kind exchange funds or other property by an exchanger completing a tax-deferred like-kind exchange.

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Consumer Goods

Consumer goods are items purchased by consumers for final consumption. These are goods that have reached the end of the manufacturing process and are not resold. The consumers, rather than another manufacturer, is the final buyer of the good.

Consumer goods are classified as durable (useful for longer than 3 years). These are goods such as refrigerators, ovens, furniture, and cars. Durable goods are considered necessities and purchased regardless of current economic conditions. The other type of consumer good is nondurable (useful for less than 3 years). This also includes pure services (consumed at the same time they are produced). Examples include clothes, food, gasoline, and oil.

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Consumer Price Index

The consumer price index (CPI) is a measure of inflation in the U.S. It is based on a basket of goods that are consumed daily by consumers. These goods are compared to their prices from the previous year. Prices of goods in the basket are recorded and weighted by each good’s importance. These prices are then compared to the goods’ average prices from a base year. This comparison results in a percentage increase or decrease, which is the amount that the CPI has gone up or down. A large increase in a short period signifies inflation while a large drop signifies deflation. CPI is also used for adjustments to pensions, Medicare, and the cost of living.

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Consumer Price Index (CPI)

A measure of the change in the value of consumer goods and services, such as food, medical care, and recreation. CPI is used to gauge inflationary and deflationary periods, providing an economic indicator as to the effectiveness of current monetary policy. The index is calculated and published by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics each month.

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Continuous Operation Clause

A clause commonly written in retail leases that requires a tenant to continuously operate at a property for the entire term of the lease. As anchor tenants may act as a demand driver for a retail center, landlords may enforce this clause to minimize the risk of a major tenant “going-dark.” In situations that a continuous operation clause is not included in the lease terms, a non-profitable tenant may leave the premises, and the center may suffer as a whole. Smaller tenants may negotiate rent abatements to make up for the loss in traffic due to the anchor tenant ceasing operation.

For example, assume a major grocery store has begun to operate at a loss in a shopping center, and has requested to “go-dark.” Knowing that the grocery store may drive a substantial amount of people to the area, the landlord may have negotiated a continuous operation clause that requires that the tenant maintain full operations. Although the grocery store may not be profitable, staying open continues to drive traffic and traffic helps to maintain the value of the overall retail center.

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Contract for Deed

A contract between a seller and a buyer of real property in which the seller provides financing to the buyer to purchase the property.

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Contract Rent

This term is used synonymously with Stated Rent.
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A controller’s position is just under the CFO of a company. The controller is involved in daily accounting, such as preparing reports, budgeting, hiring/firing people in the accounting department, and ensuring compliance. The CFO is part of the executive team, overseas financial strategy, and is often speaking on earnings calls (if the company is public).

In a smaller company, the controller and CFO may be the same position. The controller ultimately handles putting together the financial information that the CFO and other top management use for company strategy.

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Core Competencies

Core competencies allow an individual or business to stand out from the crowd. Some might call this the company’s secret ingredient or edge. Developing core competencies can take time. Sometimes, through years of trying different things, a company discovers what it is best at. For example, it is able to produce a product at a higher quality and more efficiently than its competitors. Its operational efficiency is a core competency. Core competencies are made up of several components, including people, physical assets, patents, brand equity, and capital.

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Core Property

Core properties exhibit the lowest risk and lowest potential returns amongst the four major commercial real estate risk profiles, and represent

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Core-Plus Property

Core-plus properties are generally similar to core properties, but have a slightly higher degree of risk and potential for slightly higher returns than core properties.

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Corporate Bond

A corporate bond is a debt security issued by a company. Investors buy corporate bonds for the stability and consistency of interest payments. Basically, investors are lending the company money for a certain time period. Once a bond expires or reaches maturity, payments cease, and the investor’s capital is returned, which means the loan has been paid back. Interest payments are pre-determined and rates can be fixed or variable. A corporate bond’s interest rate is determined by the company’s creditworthiness. Companies with good credit (i.e., AAA) pay less interest because of the bond’s lower interest rate. Whereas those companies with poor credit (i.e., junk status) pay a high interest rate because they are considered risky.

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Corporate Culture

Corporate culture guides how employees interact and behave with each other and customers. Corporate culture is implied rather than handed out in a pamphlet to new hires. Employees learn the culture by watching other employees. Some aspects of the culture may be explicit such as dress code. When talking to potential new hires, management may express some of the culture such as the company is laid back and people dress in everyday clothes. An aligned culture helps guide teams and is often more successful than a company in disarray, where employees act however they want. Such disarray breaks down communication, leading inefficiencies across the company.

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Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a business model that helps companies be good citizens. Just like individuals want to keep their neighborhood clean, safe, and be good neighbors, CSR applies the same principles to corporations. A company that is dumping waste into rivers or billowing smoke into the atmosphere is not practicing CSR. Companies that take measures to keep the environment clean, ensure women have equal pay, and participates in local community fundraisers are practicing CSR.

CSR is generally a practice of large organizations. For smaller firms, CSR is often too costly. Also, larger corporations have more impact on the environment, society, and their community. CSR is a method for balancing that impact.

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A cosigner is a term used to identify an additional source of repayment on a loan. A cosigner can aid a borrower by increasing the amount of principal for which he or she is eligible. A borrower may need a cosigner if he or she has a low income or minimal credit history.

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Cost Per Thousand (CPM)

CPM stands for cost per thousand and is a metric used in webpage advertising. In an effort to attract customers, companies will pay for ad space on popular websites that are related to the product they are selling. Advertising companies charge per 1,000 impressions or displays of an ad. CPM-based advertising is used for brand awareness or to advertise specific messages. As an example, an ad company that charges $2 per CPM will earn $200 per client from 100,000 ad impressions.

CPM is related to CTR, which stands for click-through rate. CTR tracks the number of clicks per 1,000 ad impressions. Ad companies will often charge extra based on the number of CTRs. CTR doesn’t necessarily mean success for a client. A customer may not purchase anything after clicking on an ad while another customer may see an ad and decide to purchase days later by phone or by walking into the store.

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Cover Letter

They say first impressions are everything. This is especially true when applying for a job. A cover letter is your chance to make a great first impression. The cover letter is a summary of you and includes parts of your resume. It’s meant as a conversational piece to show off your best attributes and why you’re the best candidate.

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Credit Bureau

Credit bureaus collect and analyze information related to a consumer's creditworthiness, which includes loans, open/closed accounts, past due payments, work history, public records, and more. There are three main credit bureaus in the United States — Equifax, Experian, and TransUnion, which are all private companies. While these agencies are not government-owned, they are regulated by The Fair Credit Reporting Act, which was passed in 1970. The Act ensures that consumers have accurate credit report information and are able to access their credit reports.

Lenders utilize the information from credit bureaus to make decisions about extending credit to consumers. Their decisions are often coupled with FICO scores. The better an individual’s credit and FICO score, the more likely they are to receive new credit and lower interest rates.

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Credit Card

A credit card is an item issued by a financial services company that provides a consumer a personal, unsecured line of credit to make purchases from merchants that accept credit cards.

Consumers will have limits on their lines of credit based on their credit score and annual salaries and wages. Credit cards feature higher annual percentage rates (APRs) than other lines of credit because of the lack of collateral associated with the line of credit. Whereas a financial institution may repossess a delinquent borrower’s home or vehicle if repayment stops, a financial institution will have a harder time obtaining recourse on the unsecured personal line of credit.

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Credit History

A credit history is a record of a person’s payments to creditors. This record is called a credit report. A credit report contains the credit profile of a person. This profile includes the number of open and closed accounts, how long accounts have been open, how much is owed on each account, delinquent payment history, and inquiries for new credit. Additionally, bankruptcies, judgments, and collections are included in a credit report.

A FICO score is also an important component of a person’s credit. It sums up someone’s creditworthiness in one score. The higher a person’s FICO or credit score, the more access to credit they will have, and the lower their loan interest rates will be. Credit scores are dynamic and can be improved.

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Credit Limit

A credit limit is the maximum amount of credit that a financial institution extends to an individual or business. Credit might come in the form of a credit card or line of credit. The amount of credit extended depends on an individual’s creditworthiness. Creditworthiness is a factor of credit history and debt to income ratio, among many other things.

For people with no credit history or those who have poor credit, they can have difficulty when trying to get new credit. Also, interest will generally be higher for such people until they establish or improve their credit. Those with great payment histories, good income, and a low debt to income ratios receive the most credit along with favorable interest rates.

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Credit Rating

A measure of a person or entity’s ability to meet certain financial requirements or obligations. Credit ratings are based on credit history, current financial position, and ability to generate future income, and look to predict the likeliness of the debtor defaulting. Common rated debt instruments include government bonds, municipal bonds, corporate debt, and collateralized securities. 

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Credit Report

A credit report provides a breakdown of an individual’s credit history and is a measure of that individual’s creditworthiness in the future. Credit bureaus compile credit reports by compiling financial information about an individual’s previous history of repayment and current levels of debt, among other factors. A credit report is a tool that lenders use to assess the risks associated with issuing debt to an individual.

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Credit Risk

The risk of loss resulting from a borrowers inability to repay its loan obligations. When a borrower is given funds from a lender, there is always risk that the borrower may not be able to meet its obligatory principal and interest payments. Although impossible to quantify, managing credit risk may reduce risk of loss. Common methods of managing credit risk on loans include assessing a consumer’s credit history, ability to repay, and access to capital. A lender may also look at loan conditions and the collateral securing the loan, to ensure that the risk of loss is compensated for.

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Credit Score

A credit score is an index that quantifies an individual consumer’s history of creditworthiness and his or her probability of repaying future debts. A credit score ranges from 300 to 850; the higher the score, the more trustworthy a lender considers a consumer. 

FICO is the most commonly accepted method of credit score. A credit score is a key component of a lender’s decision to extend a line of credit to an individual. Individuals with credit scores below 640 are considered subprime borrowers, while borrowers with credit scores above 700 are considered creditworthy.

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Credit Tenant

Credit tenant is a tenant with the size and financial strength worthy enough of being rated as investment grade by one of the three major credit agencies: Fitch, Moody’s,

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Credit Tenant Lease

Credit tenant lease is a method of financing real estate where the landlord borrows money to purchase the property and pledges the rent to be received from the tenant as security.

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Credit Unions

Credit unions are financial institutions that perform banking activities and are created, owned and operated by participants. Under the credit union structure, members pool money together via deposit accounts to provide loans and other financial products and services to other members. Credit unions and their members are typically comprised of individuals with some sort of common bond, whether that be occupation in a regional fire department or status as health workers in a hospital system.

Income generated from the activities conducted by a credit union are used to fund projects and services that will benefit the interests of the credit union’s members.

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The act of using multiple properties to secure one or more loans. Common in situations where a borrower lacks the capital to purchase a property, a cross-collateralized loan allows the borrower to use the untapped equity in another property to secure the loan on another property. This type of loan reduces the lender’s risk by securing their position in multiple properties.

For example, say John wants to buy Property A for $2 million. He currently has $200,000 in cash, and needs to borrow $1.8 million to close. The lender, however, will not lend past an 80% loan-to-value, leaving John $200,000 short on his down payment. Given that the lender will accept additional property in the place of the down payment, John looks to use a property he already owns, Property B, as further collateral. Property B has a $400,000 loan in-place, with John’s equity representing about $600,000.

Together, the market value of these properties is $3 million. The combined debt is $2.2 million, representing a loan-to-value of 73.33%. John’s debt level is then below the 80% threshold, making the lender more inclined to fulfill his loan request. The Lender now has claim to both properties in the event of default.

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Crowdfunding is a form of financing that utilizes small amounts of capital from a large number of people to fund a new venture or project. Originally brought forward as a way for organizations and entrepreneurs to secure general funding and donations from the public, regulatory changes passed in the JOBS Act have allowed for equity crowdfunding to emerge so that investors could gain a return on their crowdfunding investment.

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Crude Oil

Crude oil, which is a fossil fuel, is a natural resource found within the Earth. It is composed of hydrocarbon deposits and other organic materials. Crude oil must be drilled from the Earth and refined and processed to create petroleum products such as gasoline, diesel, kerosene, and asphalt. Drilling, refinement/processing, and the creation of particular products are what the crude oil industry is built around.

Crude oil isn’t being created as it is a nonrenewable resource. Once it is gone, there will be no more. This means crude oil is a limited resource. It is getting increasingly difficult for the industry to find new deposits of crude oil and bring them to the surface.

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Curb Appeal

Curb appeal is the attractiveness of a residence or investment property from the sidewalk or street. Often a term used by real agents when selling a property, increasing curb appeal may attract potential buyers to particular property over a less appealing property of similar size and scope. Items that may play into curb appeal include landscaping, painting, fixtures, and even the surrounding area and neighborhood.
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Cyclical Unemployment

Cyclical unemployment is driven by the business/economic cycle. When an economy goes into recession, businesses lay off employees, increasing unemployment. During expansionary periods, businesses hire people to meet demand, decreasing the unemployment level. As an example, a resort experiences high demand when people are employed, since they have discretionary income. But once the economy begins softening and people start getting laid off, consumers save and avoid unnecessary expenses, such as spending at resorts. This decreases demand at the resort, which cuts its expenses by laying off people, driving up unemployment in the process. Other factors that affect employment are seasonal, structural, frictional, and institutional.

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Low Income Housing Tax Credits

Created in 1986 and made permanent in 1993, is an indirect federal subsidy used to finance the construction and rehabilitation of low-income affordable rental housing.
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Low-Income Community Census Tracts

A low-income community census tract has an individual poverty rate of at least 20% and median family income up to 80% percent of the area median [Section 45D(e)].

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New Market Tax Credits

Designed to increase the flow of capital to businesses and low-income communities by providing a modest tax incentive to private investors.

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Opportunity Zone vs. New Market Tax Credits

Although there are similarities between the Opportunity Zone Program and the New Markets Tax Credit program, a crucial difference will be in underwriting the potential financial success of the low-income community businesses in which an Opportunity Fund invests.
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Qualified Opportunity Fund Certification

To become a Qualified Opportunity Fund, an eligible taxpayer self-certifies.  As of now, no approval or action by the IRS is required.

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Title III Regulation Crowdfunding

Title III Regulation Crowdfunding is a Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) regulation that exempts non-accredited investors from registering with the SEC to invest in crowdfunded equity offerings. Title III requires that issuers gather funds through either a broker-dealer or registered funding platform.
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Valuation, Cost Approach

Cost approach valuation is a real estate valuation method that bases a property’s market value off the cost it would take to build an equivalent structure. The cost approach takes into account the cost of land plus the cost of construction, less depreciation. Similar to its counterparts, the cost approach may have other forces that prove it inaccurate. For example, if vacant land is not available to compare against, the professional valuing the property will have to derive an estimate, making the end value less accurate.

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What is a 1031 Exchange?

Download the Realized Ebook - What Is A 1031 Exchange?

What is Investment Property Wealth Management?

Manage risk and help maximize opportunity

Are DST Investments Right For Me?

Are DST Investments Right For Me?