Senior living property is housing that is catered to seniors, typically over the age of 55. Contrary to standard multifamily properties, senior living communities usually include specialized amenities or services. Senior living covers a wide range of property types that include active-adult communities, assisted living, and memory care facilities.
Stock of any domestic corporation (i) acquired by the Opportunity Fund after December 31, 2017, at original issuance solely in exchange for cash, and (ii) which, at the time such stock is issued and during substantially all of the Opportunity Fund’s holding period, is a Qualified Opportunity Zone Business (“QOZB”).
The S&P 500 is a stock market index containing 500 US-based large cap companies. Some people consider it a better representation of U.S. companies than the Dow Jones Industrial Average, which has only 30 companies. The S&P 500 is a market-capitalization-weighted. This method gives a higher percentage allocation to companies with the largest market capitalizations. It is also a float-weighted index, which means that companies’ weights are determined by the number of available shares for that company. The S&P 500 is not the only index of its kind as there are many derivative indices available to invest and that track the S&P 500.
Safe harbor is a statutory or regulatory provision that provides protection from a penalty or liability. In the context of a 1031 exchange, safe harbor refers to any one of
A sale-leaseback is an agreement where the seller of real estate leases back the same property from the buyer the seller sold it to. Once a seller has given title to the buyer, the seller immediately enters into a lease agreement with the new owner, making rent payments to occupy the property. Sale-leaseback provisions are often used in situations where a company needs to access capital tied up in an asset such as real estate, but still needs to use the property in order to operate.
Different jurisdictions, counties and municipalities across the United States charge different sales taxes.
Salvage value is the approximate value of an asset at the end of its useful life. Using both purchase price and a given accounting method, such as straight-line or double declining balance, one can calculate the amount of annual depreciation being attributed to an asset based on its salvage value. Salvage value is an estimate, while depreciation is a calculation based off this amount.
A requirement in a 1031-exchange transaction, the same taxpayer provision states that the taxpayer who owned the relinquished property must be the same taxpayer who takes ownership of the replacement property. This ensures that the taxpayer’s basis is carried over into the new property, and that there is a continuity of deferral.
Sampling error is a statistical metric that occurs when an analyst does not select a sample representative of the population it was chosen from. When calculations are performed on the sample, they will not coincide with results from a sample that is representative of the population. This problem can be fixed by choosing a larger sample from the population. Sampling error isn’t necessarily a bad thing and is usually present in most samples. There is generally some amount of sampling error since the sample is always only a small part of the population. The smaller the sampling error, the more representative of the population the sample will be.
Savings bonds are issued by the federal government and can be purchased by the public. Savings bonds are considered one of the safest forms of investment since they are backed by the federal government, which has virtually zero chance of defaulting. Because savings bonds are considered very safe, they also pay a low interest-rate. However, people still buy them for savings.
Savings bonds are issued as debt to the government. The interest rate of savings bonds is determined by the market. Like any debt, the government pays interest on savings bonds to the holders of those bonds (i.e., debt). Just like a person with great credit has a high credit score, the savings bonds have one of the highest credit ratings.
Scarcity is a basic economic problem that describes the limited means of producers and suppliers to satisfy unlimited wants of consumers. The concept of scarcity grapples with the fact that every resource has a finite supply, whether that be time, money, water, wood or land. The study of economics is thus ultimately the study of how individuals and entities react to the scarce supplies and allocate resources to combat this limit to generate profit.
A Schedule K-1 is a type of tax document used to report partnership incomes, losses, and dividends. Each individual partner is obligated to complete one of these forms, whenever necessary, and must include it with their respective personal tax returns.
A second mortgage is a subordinate mortgage taken on by a borrower while a first mortgage is still in place. In situations where a homeowner has built up equity in his or her property by paying down a first lien mortgage, or property appreciation as occurred, one may want to borrow against this new equity to fund projects or other expenditures. Due to the fact the second mortgages only receive payment when the first mortgage has been paid off, they typically hold higher interest rates.
There are two main types of second mortgages that exist: a home equity loan and a line of credit. A home equity loan is where a borrower receives a upfront lump sum from the lender, and makes interest and principal over the mortgages term, similar to a conventional loan. A line of credit is where the lender allots a predetermined amount of money for the borrower to draw from, with the borrower able to borrow and repay the line of credit as often as they wish. Note that in a line of credit type loan, the borrower is not required to take any funds from the borrower.
The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is responsible for enforcing securities laws created by Congress. The SEC makes sure that any individual or company trying to sell securities fully discloses information about the securities being sold. This gives investors an opportunity to evaluate the security and make an informed decision to invest in it or not.
The SEC was formed in 1934 by Congress as part of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. The SEC also ensures securities markets function in an orderly manner. As well, it oversees corporate takeovers since any company looking to take over another must register with the SEC.
Securitization is a financial practice of pooling various types of contractual debt such as residential mortgages, commercial mortgages, auto loans or
Seller financing is a loan provided by the seller of a property or business to the purchaser of that property or business.
Debt that takes priority over other unsecured, “junior” debt. Senior debt sits at the bottom of the capital stack, and offers the lowest risk with the lowest return.
As owners in the company, shareholders have certain rights that include the right to review a firm’s books and records, vote on key company matters, receive dividends, attend annual meetings and vote on certain matters.
The sharpe ratio is a measure of investment return against risk. The higher this ratio, the less risk one is taking for return. The sharpe ratio formula is (return - risk free rate) / [standard deviation]. We want to know the risk-adjusted return, which the following gives us: return - risk free rate. Volatility, or risk, is found from the standard deviation. The larger our return (numerator) and the smaller the risk (denominator), the larger our sharpe ratio will be. As risk increases without an equal or greater increase in return, the sharpe ratio will drop, signifying we are taking on more risk for each unit of return. When comparing sharpe ratios across investments, it’s important to compare similar investments.
A shortage is created when the demand for a product is greater than the supply of that product. There are three conditions that can create a shortage:
- Increase in demand — occurs when consumers suddenly demand more of a product. For example, demand for a new automobile that a manufacturer cannot fulfill.
- Decrease in supply — occurs when the supply of a good drops. For example, a virus among pigs means many of them must be euthanized, creating a shortage of pork products.
- Government intervention — a government can impose a cap on prices (i.e., a price ceiling), allowing more people to buy a good than would be realized in a free market.
Types of loans that apply simple interest are auto loans and short-term personal loans. Consumers who pay loans early or on time on a monthly basis benefit from simple interest structure because principal balance shrinks faster under this method of interest calculation.
A simple random sampling is a small sample of a population. The small sample is meant to represent the larger population being sampled. Rather than sampling an entire population, which may be impractical due to the population’s size and time requirements, a small sample of people that are similar to the larger population can be sampled instead. From this small sample, facts can be derived about the larger population.
As an example, upper management wants to survey its 10,000 employees. Rather than send out 10,000 surveys, 500 can be sent to accomplish the same goal. It’s important that the sample takes into consideration any groups within the population. If 50% of the population are male and 50% are female, the sample should represent this same grouping.
Single tenant property is property that is fully occupied by a single user. Single tenant properties often feature a triple-net (NNN) lease structure and generally have remaining lease terms of at least 10 years.
An SKU (stock-keeping unit) is a scannable code that keeps track of products in a retail store. It is part of the store’s inventory tracking system. In addition to a scannable barcode, an SKU is also composed of an alpha-numeric set of around 8 characters. The bar code is usually above the set of characters. The SKU contains information about a product’s price and its manufacturer.
Instead of shutting the store down to do an inventory count periodically, employees can use a handheld scanner to scan each item in the store. This information is fed back into the inventory system to reconcile what has been purchased against the remaining (unpurchased) units. The part of the inventory system that deals with SKUs is called a POS (point of sale). In some stores, customers are also able to scan SKUs on their mobile phones for additional information about a product.
When a store item is purchased, it is scanned by the cashier (or by the customer for self-checkout). Once scanned, the item is subtracted from the store’s available inventory. When the inventory for an item gets low, the manager is notified. In more sophisticated inventory systems, a notification will be sent to the vendor, who will then submit a re-order for those specific products.
SKUs can be used with non-tangible items as well, which includes repairs and warranties. For example, an auto repair shop will use an SKU for different types of billable time.
SKUs are also used in marketing. When a customer purchases a certain product or group of products, the store’s inventory system can analyze those purchases. An advertisement for a similar product may be displayed to the customer. This type of informed ad has a higher chance of making a sale than some random ad. Additionally, store managers can see which items are hot sellers vs. those that are not. Depending on the type of POS being used, managers can see this information in real-time.
Individuals over the age of 62 who have paid into the system for 10 years or more qualify for Social Security retirement benefits.
The Social Security Act was introduced by President Franklin D. Roosevelt during the Great Depression in 1935. The government began collecting the tax from workers in 1937 and making payments in 1940.
The Social Security tax, or Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) Program, which is the official name of social security, is a payroll tax levied against employees and employers. When you look at your next paycheck, you’ll see a deduction for FICA. FICA stands for (FICA) Federal Insurance Contributions Act, which is the fund that Social Security taxes are paid into. Self-employed people also pay into Social Security through self-employment taxes, which are mandated by the Self-Employed Contributions Act (SECA).
The 2020 Social Security tax rate is set at 12.4% and is paid 50/50 between employees and employers. Self-employed people must pay the entire 12.4% Social Security tax.
Soft costs are fees that are not directly related to labor and direct constructions costs. Soft costs include architectural, engineering, financing, and legal fees, and
The solvency of a company demonstrates if the company’s ability to pay its long-term debts. Companies that cannot pay their long-term debts are insolvent. Basically, a company that owes more than it is worth is insolvent. If a company does not have enough cash on hand or from cash flows to meet its long-term obligations, it will likely default on its long-term debts without some outside assistance. If no assistance is provided, the company will have to file for bankruptcy.
The solvency ratio can be used to determine how likely a company is to pay its debts. The ratio = [(net after-tax profit) + depreciation] / (short & long-term liabilities). The ratio is expressed as a percentage. The solvency ratio should only be compared to companies within the same industry.
Special purpose entity is a legal entity established by the sponsor or borrowing entity whose operations are limited to the acquisition and financing of specific assets.
When a company specializes in one category of products, it is able to focus all of its efforts on making the best product possible. Such a focus can create a competitive advantage for the company and even allow it to command higher prices, leading to higher earnings. Even if the market for a specialized product is small, this group of customers is often willing to pay more for a hard to find product.
Specialization can have disadvantages in the cost of materials and labor. Just as customers are willing to pay more for specialized products, companies may also have to pay more for rare raw materials. Talent (i.e., labor) can be difficult to attract as well as specialized skill sets are generally in demand, leading to higher wages for such employees.
A spin off is the sale of an existing business from a larger business (parent company). The spin off may no longer align with the larger business’s strategy or it may be losing money. Shareholders of the parent company may receive dividends from the spin off. Shareholders may also have the ability to exchange parent company stock for the stock within the spin off at a discount.
Spin offs can perform differently in the marketplace compared to that of the parent company. Usually, the spin off will perform poorly during a weak market and very good in a stronger market. This performance will be reflected in the spin off’s stock price, which can exhibit volatile behavior.
In the context of real estate partnerships, a sponsor is an individual or company in charge of finding, acquiring, and managing the real estate property on behalf of
Stabilized occupancy is the long-term average occupancy rate that an income-producing property is expected to achieve after exposure for leasing in the open market for
Stagflation is a term used to describe a period of slowing economic growth in which prices are increasing at a rate higher than the growth of the economy. Stagflation was widely recognized during a period in the 1970’s in which the U.S. economy experienced rapid inflation and high levels of unemployment. Previously, stagflation was widely considered by economists to be impossible, because macroeconomic theory long believed that unemployment and inflation were inversely correlated. There are many theories that have spawned since the mid-20th century that seek to identify the root cause of stagflation.
The standard deduction is an IRS tax deduction that is used in place of itemization of expenses (Schedule A). For people who do not have complex tax filings or qualifying expenses, the standard deduction is the preferred tax deduction. Taking the standard deduction will reduce your overall tax bill. The standard deduction amount varies depending on the filing status, age, and whether you are disabled or claimed as a dependent on someone else’s tax return. Not everyone will qualify for the standard deduction, including those who choose not to itemize their expenses.
The standard deviation is a measure of volatility. It is commonly used to measure the volatility of investments (i.e., stocks). Volatility is associated with the riskiness of an investment. The higher an investment’s volatility, the higher its risk and vice versa. Investors generally prefer lower risk (lower volatility) investments. The standard deviation is a statistical measure of dispersion relative to the mean. It can be calculated by taking the square of variance based on each data point relative to the mean. To perform the calculation step-by-step for a stock, add up its returns across a period of time (i.e., monthly returns across 6 months) and divide by the number of observations to get the historical return. Subtract those returns from the average, square them, and add up those results. Now divide that sum by the number of observations minus one. Finally, take the square root of the last result to get the standard deviation.
Stated rent is the rent amount paid by the occupant to the landlord as specified in the lease. Stated rent does not account for any concessions or landlord costs
Statistical significance tries to verify that variables related to an outcome are relevant to that outcome. For example, a finance engineer wants to know if a set of stocks will drop within the next 120 days. His model consists of several variables, such as earnings, technical indicators, and news events. Certain news events show a high correlation with stock price movement. The news event variable is, therefore, statistically significant. Any variable that is statistically significant has a high percentage (i.e., close to one). 95% and 99% are commonly used to show statistical significance.
When analyzing a population, most data analysts will use a sample size. From there, they can determine statistical significance. However, it is important that the sample accurately represents the larger population. Otherwise, any statistical significance findings may be incorrect.
When a taxpayer bequeaths an asset to a beneficiary upon death, the beneficiary’s tax basis in the asset is “stepped up” to the fair market value of
A stock is a security that represents a shareholder’s proportionate ownership in the assets and earnings of the issuing corporation. Stocks are primarily bought and sold on exchanges. In exchange for cash, stockholders obtain a piece of a corporation and a claim to that firm’s assets and earnings.
In today’s market, stockbrokers are critical for retail investors to obtain exposure to the market, because major exchanges such as the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) require membership to trade on its exchange. Thus, retail investors cannot trade directly through an NYSE window and must hire a broker at a member firm to perform the transaction on their behalf.
Stocks are certificates that entitle the holder of the stock to a proportionate share of ownership in a company. For example, if there are 100 shares of stock available from a company and an investor owns 10 shares, the investor owns 10% of the company. For publicly traded companies, investors hold their shares with a brokerage rather than actual certificates of paper.
Companies do not need to be public to issue shares of stock. Private companies can issue shares as well, although private shares are far less liquid than public shares. Companies generally issue stock to raise money for their business.
The stock market is also a source of capital-raising for private companies seeking to offer shares of their company to the public for the first time in the form of an initial public offering (IPO).
Stock splits might be seen as marketing techniques. When the price of a stock rises to high, it can become unattractive to investors. A lower price stock allows investors to hold a large number of shares. With a high priced stock, investors may be able to hold only a few shares. When a company splits its stock, it creates more shares at a lower price. However, the value of those shares is the same. For example, a $500 stock that splits 1-2 means the price will drop to $250, and each shareholder will have two shares at $250 instead of one at $500. Stocks can also do reverse splits. A $50 stock that splits 2-1 means that for every two shares, investors get one at $100.
A store of value is an asset that does not depreciate. Gold and silver are great examples since their shelf life is basically perpetual. Food and vehicles are not stores of value since they depreciate rapidly and lose value. A store of value is something you can use to exchange for something else now or in the future and expect that it will hold its value. The U.S. dollar is considered a store of value since the amount it is valued at does not change. Treasury bonds are also good stores of value. They are backed by the U.S. government, pay interest, and at maturity, the bondholder receives all of their principal back.
A submarket is broadly defined as a distinct part of a larger market. In the commercial real estate context, a market is typically a city or an MSA and
A subsidy is meant to supplement a particular adverse or burdensome economic condition for individuals and businesses. Subsidies may be provided by both governments and businesses. Governments may provide subsidies in the form of tax cuts and unemployment and welfare benefits. A business may subsidize the operations of a newly acquired business until it becomes profitable. Subsidies are meant to be a temporary relief.
Some common subsidies are tax benefits for electric car owners and payments to farmers. Electric car owners receive a tax break due to the low emissions of electric cars, which promote social benefit. Farmers may receive subsidies for not farming specific land because crop yields will result in a loss for the farmer due to depressed prices.
Qualified Opportunity Zone Business Property (“QOZBP”) is substantially improved for this purpose if during any 30-month period following acquisition of such property there are additions to basis that equal the adjusted basis as of the beginning of such 30-month period.
The substitution effect occurs when consumers switch from a more expensive product to a similar, less expensive product. For example, if beef and chicken cost the same price, but beef begins rising in price, consumers will switch to the cheaper chicken. Chicken is a comparable alternative compared to beef and a better value.
Once the demand for beef drops, its price will drop as well. Consumers will then switch back to beef. It’s important to note that the substitution effect only works if consumers’ spending power remains the same. If consumers begin earning more, the substitution effect doesn’t impact their choice as much. Consumers are less likely to stop eating beef, even if the price rises.
A firm must ensure that an investment is suitable for an investor as outlined by Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA) Rule 2111. Suitability ensures that an investor’s situation matches the particular investment recommended by an investment firm. FINRA has specific rules for determining this match. In general, suitability can be determined from an investor’s profile, which contains information such as the investor’s risk tolerance, investment time frame, and goals. Suitability is not the same as fiduciary standards/requirements.
A sunk cost is money spent on a project that has not provided the desired outcome. For example, a pharmaceutical company spends $25 million in R&D on drug #1. The outcome is not what the company was hoping for. The drug does not cure a particular disease and has negative side effects. The $25 million is already spent and there is no chance of recouping that investment.
The company can spend $10 million more pursuing drug #1 or put the money towards a higher probability outcome for drug #2. The fact that $25 million has already been spent should not factor into the decision. If the company decides to continue with drug #1, in hopes of recouping some of its loss, it will have engaged in what economists call loss aversion.
A political action committee (PAC) is a group of people formed to raise money for a political campaign with the ultimate goal of influencing the election. Super PACs raise unlimited funds for the same reason but can’t donate directly to a campaign. Corporations are not allowed to contribute directly to campaigns but can funnel that money through a PAC to support the campaign. While Super PACs cannot contribute to a campaign, they can spend money in other ways that support the campaign. Once an organization raises $2,600, it is considered a PAC.
Companies monitor their supply chains ultimately to reduce variable costs and expenses at various points throughout the production of a good or service. More mature companies with high levels of working capital can choose to vertically integrate supply chains, which involves the ownership of all levels of the supply chain network involved in the production of a good or service.
A supply curve is a graphical representation of the relationship between the price of a good or service and its supply. There are two variables involved — price on the Y-axis and supply on the X-axis. When the supply curve is sloping from the bottom left to the upper right, supply will increase as price increases. The supply curve can help to show what will happen to the price of a product or service as the level of its supply changes and vice versa. Be aware that price is considered the independent variable. In statistics, the independent variable is on the x-axis instead of the y-axis, but not in economics.
When factors outside of price or supply come into play, a new supply curve must be drawn. This means the supply curve will shift left or right. Some factors that will shift the supply curve include more competition entering into the market or the introduction of more efficient technology for producing goods or services. Both will increase the supply for those goods or services.
For example, if more car repair shops open in the same city, rates will become competitive and it will be difficult for anyone car repair shop to maintain higher rates, much less increase them. This can also happen for soybean farmers. When more farmers enter the market, or new technology is introduced that allows farmers to harvest more soybeans, the supply of soybeans will increase. In both cases, supply increases. This increase in supply shifts the supply curve to the right.
The correlation between the price and supply movement along the curve is called supply elasticity or price elasticity of supply. A one-to-one movement has a supply elasticity of 1. Meaning that if price increases by one unit on the curve and supply does the same, there is a supply elasticity of 1. The supply curve, in that case, is straight (diagonally). If price rises by 5 units and the supply only rises by 1 unit, price elasticity is only 0.2. That curve is closer to horizontal and has higher elastic supply. Lower elastic supply means the curve is closer to vertical.
Supply is the amount of a good or service that is available to consumers. The price a consumer will pay for a good determines how much of the good’s supply is sold. In this way, consumers are able to influence prices through their demand. As consumers buy up the supply of a product without decreasing their demand, the price increases. At some point, price becomes too high, and demand falls.
Equilibrium occurs when supply and demand are equal. From the above example, as the price falls, demand increases. Eventually, the market determines the right price, and fluctuation between supply and demand slows. This is where the market begins to meet equilibrium.
A surplus is the amount of an asset or resource that is unused. For example, an inventory surplus occurs when there is unsold inventory. A budget surplus occurs when there is more income than expenses. An economic surplus has two types — consumer and producer.
A consumer surplus occurs when the price of a good or service drops below the maximum price that a consumer will pay. In that case, the consumer can buy the product with cash left over. A producer surplus occurs when the price of a good that is being sold sells for a higher price than was expected by the producer, allowing the producer to make an excess profit. Note that these two scenarios are mutually exclusive — one’s gain is the other’s loss.
A capital loss that cannot be realized in a given tax year due to passive activity limitations. The losses are suspended until they can be netted against passive income in a future tax year. These suspended losses are a result of passive activities, and can only be carried forward. Suspended losses that are a result of the disposition of a passive interest are subject to an annual capital loss limit.
For example, if a taxpayer incurs a $10,000 suspended loss from a passive activity and participates in the activity in the following year and earns $20,000, then the suspended loss may be applied against $10,000 of the earned income, leaving the taxpayer with $10,000 of declarable income for the year.
SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) is a type of analysis that lets companies take an assessment of their position within an industry. It is a framework that helps companies look both inward and outward.
SWOT is divided into two main areas — internal and external. The internal analysis includes strengths and opportunities, and external analysis includes weaknesses and threats. Companies should try to take advantage of strengths and opportunities while minimizing weaknesses and threats. SWOT is often performed by a group of people rather than a single person. It’s also important that the group feels they can speak freely and without consequences.
The uncertainty caused by macroeconomic factors that affect all risky assets. Also known as “market risk”, systematic risk underlies the performance of most asset classes that trade publicly or privately. One can not diversify against systematic risk, as it includes events such as inflation, changes in interest rates, recessionary periods, and even war. These type of forces tend to affect the market as a whole, and typical portfolio diversification strategies may not be as effective.
Systematic sampling is a method of population sampling for statistical inference. It is a form of random sampling. To perform systematic sampling, a sample size from a population must be determined. Then the nth value can be calculated. For example, if the population size is 10,000 and the target sample size is 100, then every 10,000/100 = 100 participants should be chosen. 100 is the nth value. This means every 100 people within the population should be sampled.
One drawback of systematic sampling is skew. If the population is categorized or grouped, skew can occur in the samples. An example of this is a company with departments of 100 people. If each first person in every 100 samples is a manager of the department, then the sampling will be overweight towards managers.
When performing systematic sampling, the starting point should be chosen at random. From there, the constant interval (i.e., nth value) is used consistently throughout the sampling to choose participants. The main benefit of using systematic sampling is that statisticians don’t have to sample every individual within a population — often an impractical task. Systematic sampling is popular with researchers because it is fast and easy. While only a few participants from the population are selected, systematic sampling provides an accurate representation of the total population.
The starting point of a systematic sampling must be random. Using the example from above, a number between 1-100 can be chosen as the starting point. If 25 is the random number that comes up, then the 25th person in the first 100 block of participants is chosen first. In the next round, the 125th person is chosen since 100 is the nth value. Additionally, a time element can be injected into the process. Perhaps a participant is chosen each 12 hours until all participants have been chosen.
Sales comparison valuation is a real estate appraisal method that estimates a property’s value by comparing it against other properties with similar attributes that have been sold recently. This approach considers all of the individual features of a property, adjusting the value to reflect a sum of all the property’s features. A sales comparison approach may be used to evaluate both commercial and residential property.