Glossary of Terms

Community Development Financial Institutions Fund (CDFI Fund)

Promotes economic revitalization in distressed communities throughout the United States by providing financial assistance and information to community development financial institutions (CDFI)

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Face Rent

Face rent is also known as Stated Rent.

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Factors of Production

Factors of production are inputs that firms use to generate economic profit during the production of a good or service. These factors include land, labor, capital, entrepreneurship, and technology. 

Firms leverage these factors to generate economic profits by generating revenues from the sale of a good or service that exceeds the costs of producing or maintaining these factors.

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Fannie Mae

Fannie Mae is the more common alias of The Federal National Mortgage Association (FNMA) is a publicly traded

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FDIC

The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation is an independent federal agency tasked with insuring customer deposits at US banks and thrifts. Created in 1933, the FDIC seeks to maintain public confidence and stability throughout financial crises by promoting sound banking practices.

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Federal Funds Rate

The interest rate at which banks lend reserve balances to each other on an overnight basis. Depository institutions are required by law to maintain a certain percentage of their customer’s money in reserves, causing banks to lend money back and forth to maintain an acceptable level of cash on hand. Banks will try to stay as close to the minimum reserve limit as possible, as excess reserves earn a rate of return of zero and can lose value over time due to inflation.

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Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (FHLMC)

See Freddie Mac.

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Federal National Mortgage Association (FNMA)

See Fannie Mae.

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Fee Simple Ownership

The most absolute type of ownership of land. The owner has complete rights over the property, and may possess, use, and dispose of the land as he or she desires. Contrary to a leasehold ownership, an owner of a fee simple interest in a property has taken title, and owns both the land and any improvements that exist on the land indefinitely. Expect for a few unique situations, no one can legally take ownership of land from someone with pre-existing fee simple ownership.

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Finance

Finance is a term that describes the study and system of money, investments and various other financial instruments. Generally, finance is broken into three categories: public finance, corporate finance and personal finance.

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Financial Leverage

Financial leverage is the use of borrowed funds to acquire an investment. In the context of commercial real estate, this typically involves the use of a mortgage

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FinTech

FinTech, which is short for Financial Technology, is the word used to describe new technology that is developed to automate and improve the financial and banking services sectors. Typically delivered through different algorithms and software packages on computers and smartphones, FinTech looks to help corporations, business owners, and consumers facilitate and manage their financial operations and needs.

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First Trust Deed

See Deed of Trust.

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First-Loss Position

First loss position is an investment’s or security’s position that will suffer the first economic loss if the underlying assets lose value or are foreclosed upon.

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Fiscal Policy

Fiscal policy is a tool used by governments to influence economic conditions via spending and tax policy. Fiscal policies are implemented to influence demand for goods or services, employment, inflation or economic expansion.

A government can implement fiscal policy in the form of lower tax rates in order to influence higher levels of consumer spending. It could also promote economic expansion by building infrastructure such as public transportation or highways that will allow individuals and businesses higher levels of connectivity and ability to expand productivity.

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Fiscal Year

A fiscal year is a period of time that a firm or government uses for its accounting and preparation of financial statements. Though it is similar to a calendar year in that it is 12 months, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) provides firms the choice to pay tax liabilities on a calendar year basis or fiscal year basis. 

The Internal Revenue Service dictates that a fiscal year consists of twelve consecutive months ending on the last day of any month with the exception of December. Thus, a firm can report its financial statements to various regulators and shareholders as of the fiscal year ending February 28. 

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Fixed Rate Loan

A type of loan where the interest rate is predetermined, and does not fluctuate during the term of the loan. Fixed rate loans allow borrowers to accurately calculate future financial obligations, in the form of both principal and interest payments.

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Fixture

A fixture is something that is permanently attached to real property.  Examples include items such as HVAC systems, ceiling lights, awnings, window shades,

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Flat Tax

Refers to a tax system that utilizes the same marginal tax rate across individual taxpayers or businesses. Opposite of the progressive tax structure, this method ensures that higher income earning entities don’t pay a proportionately higher amount of taxes. 

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FMV Basis Election

If an investor holds its interest in the QOF for 10 years or more, for purposes of determining the gain or loss the investor recognizes from the sale or exchange of such QOF interest, the investor may elect for the basis of such QOF interest to be equal to its fair market value on the date such QOF interest is sold or exchanged.

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Foreclosure

Foreclosure is the legal process by which the mortgage holder attempts to recover the balance of a loan from a borrower who has defaulted by forcing the sale

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Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act (FIRPTA)

Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act (FIRPTA) is a United States tax law that imposes a tax on foreign persons disposing of United States real property interests. To ensure tax collection from

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Form 1099

One of the several tax forms distributed by IRS, Form 1099 is used in the United States to report various types of income other than wages, salaries, and tips. The form is primarily used to report payments to independent contractors, income from rental properties, and income from interest and dividends.

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Form 8824

Form 8824 is a form to be filled out with an exchanger’s tax return in order to report the completion of a 1031 like-kind exchange to the IRS.

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Fractional Ownership

Percentage ownership over real property. A common structure for assets that require significant pooling of capital, fractional ownership allows the costs and profits of a particular investment be split amongst the owners of title. Percent ownership is typically determined by the amount contributed to the entity’s overall capitalization.

There are two primary options one can take when considering 1031 eligible fractional ownership in investment property: Delaware Statutory Trusts (DSTs) and Tenant-In-Common investments (TICs). These structures allow smaller investors to enter into larger, investment-grade properties that were originally restricted to institutional investors, such as banks and insurance companies.

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Freddie Mac

Freddie Mac is the more commonly known alias of the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (FHLMC) which is a publicly traded

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Free Market

A free market is an economic system categorized by the free exchange of goods and services absent of government intervention. In a free market, the laws of supply and demand dictate the flow of capital and individual decision making. While no free markets exist in actuality, economists have widely concluded that a higher level of economic freedom in a particular market is highly correlated with economic well being in that region.
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Free Trade

Free trade is a policy that seeks to allow buyers and sellers from economies around the world to trade freely without incurring government tariffs, quotas or subsidies. Free trade is synonymous with “laissez-faire trade” which seeks to eliminate discrimination against imports and exports and allow markets to find equilibrium organically in the absence of government policies. Free trade allows the expansion of an economy’s offering of services and products by allowing the best producer the opportunity to penetrate a market regardless of its national denomination. This allows an economy to expand its product offerings, knowledge, skills and promotes specialization and the division of labor. 

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Fully Amortizing Loan

A fully amortizing loan is a type of loan which is completely paid off by the end of its term, given the borrower makes complete payments based on the loan’s amortization schedule. Whereas fixed rate loans will have equal payments of interest and principal over its term, debt service on floating rate loans will change as the interest rate changes. Due to the fact that all principal will be paid off, fully amortizing loans will not see a balloon payment at the end of its term, regardless of whether it is fixed or floating.

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Fund

A fund is a pool of money that is allocated for a specific investment strategy or purpose. Individuals and businesses can allocate money into a fund for various purposes, whether that be for college savings, emergencies or trusts.

With regard to corporate-level investment strategies, fund types can include mutual funds, exchange-traded funds (ETFs) or hedge funds. Different types of funds have different investment theses which attract investors with risk profiles that align strongly with a fund’s strategy.

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Future Value (FV)

Future value is a time value of money (TVM) concept that represents the expected value, as of a defined date in the future, resulting from

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Qualified Opportunity Fund Certification

To become a Qualified Opportunity Fund, an eligible taxpayer self-certifies.  As of now, no approval or action by the IRS is required.

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Qualified Opportunity Zone Fund or Qualified Opportunity Fund (“QOF”)

An investment vehicle that is set up as either a partnership or corporation for investing at least 90% of its assets in eligible property (see “Opportunity Zone Property”) that is located in an Opportunity Zone and that utilizes the investor’s gains from a prior investment (an unlimited amount) from the sale or exchange of any property (whether or not the asset sold was located in or related to a low-income community).

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The Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA)

The Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA) is a US law introduced in 1935 that mandates a payroll tax on employee salaries and wages and on employer contributions to Social Security and Medicare programs.

FICA contributions are mandatory. Funds collected as a result of this payroll tax help fund programs such as Social Security and Medicare that pay for current retirees’ and other beneficiaries’ benefits.

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