An insurance rider is an additional coverage to a standard insurance policy. Insurance companies offer riders for customers who need certain coverage that isn’t available through a standard policy. An example is a standard home insurance policy but the customer also wants coverage for earthquakes. Earthquake coverage can be added as an additional feature of the policy. Riders come at a cost. Depending on what the rider covers, the cost can be high. However, if the customer is unable to self-insure or the value of the rider is worth it than the cost can make sense.
Racketeering is term used to refer to crimes committed through extortion or coercion. Racketeers seek to obtain money or benefits from other individuals or firms via intimidation or force. Racketeering is a term that describes a broad array of crimes and is typically associated with organized crime.
The rate of change is a measure of the speed at which a variable changes over time. With regard to a stock’s price, the rate of change can be calculated by dividing the current price of a stock by its value at a previous period in time, subtracting one and multiplying by 100. For example, say the price of Stock A was $100 in January and dropped to $75 by March. The rate of change for Stock A’s price in this 3-month time period would be -25%.
Rate of return is the profit or loss on an investment over a specified period of time expressed as proportion of the investment amount.
Property consisting of land and the buildings on it, along with its natural resources such as crops, minerals, or water.
A licensed intermediary between buyers and sellers of real estate, typically working for commission. Real estate agent is a broad term which includes
A licensed intermediary between buyers and sellers of real estate, typically working for commission. A real estate broker typically has completed
Real estate debt is a debt instrument that the borrower is obliged to pay back with a predetermined set of payments. The debt instrument is secured by
Real estate equity is the difference between the current fair market value of a property and the amount of debt owed against the property.
Real estate investment is real estate that generates income or is otherwise intended for investment purposes rather than as a primary residence or personal use.
Real Estate Investment Trust is a trust or company that owns, finances, or invests in real estate and/or real estate-related assets. REITs provide individuals the ability to invest in
An investor who evaluates the real estate market and purchases property with the intention of building wealth.
A real estate rollover is a type of property exchange that allows the investor to roll their gains over into like-kind property. This transaction is called a 1031 exchange. Because gains from the relinquished property are rolled into the acquired property, taxes on those gains are deferred.
Real estate syndication is a method of pooling capital from multiple investors for the common goal of acquiring real estate.
Real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is the gross domestic output (i.e., economic output) of a country, factoring in the effects of inflation. The flip side of this coin is that nominal GDP doesn’t account for the effects of inflation and thus has a higher value. Real GDP can be thought of as nominal GDP minus inflation. While nominal GDP is used to measure quarters within the same year, real GDP measures output across years. Real GDP provides a practical method for comparing the quantity and value of goods and services across different years. The Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) puts out quarterly numbers for both real and nominal GDP.
Real property is land, and generally whatever is erected or affixed to the land, such as buildings, fences, and including light fixtures, plumbing.
Realized gain is the amount of gain that the investor made from the sale of an asset. It is calculated as the net sales price received (sales price of the asset less any
A lease provision that grants a landlord the right to terminate a current lease, and take back possession to specific space or tenant suite. To take effect, there is typically a negotiated triggering event that has to occur. This includes a tenant “going dark” or failing to meet its percentage rent terms. Although common in commercial real estate leases, recapture clauses can be included in any contract in which an asset is exchanged. For example, say Sarah owns XYZ Retail Center. The space is currently leased to Yummy Grocery, with a stated rent of 2% of its sales for a minimum of $2,000. Meaning, Yummy Grocery has to have sales of $100,000 to meet its rent obligation. The next month, Yummy Grocery only does $80,000 in sales. Because Sarah negotiated a recapture clause in the lease, she may be able to terminate the lease and take back the space from Yummy and potentially replace it with a different tenant.
A recession is a macroeconomic term that represents a significant and extended period of declining or stagnant economic performance in a region or country in the world. Investors, businesses, public entities and governments all track various indicators that can predict or signal the onset of a recession.
A term used to describe real estate assets that are tied to lifestyle trends, as opposed to economic cycles. These assets are less subject to downturns, and are subject to forces of the underlying market demographic. Recession-resistant real estate typically falls under three main asset classes: student housing, self-storage, and senior living.
Recognized gain is the taxable portion of realized gains arising from the sale of an asset or assets. Recognized gains are typically less than realized gains due to
Reconciliation is an accounting task that compares two records to ensure they match. Any mismatch must be tracked down, as it could mean there was an accounting mistake or potential fraud. For example, comparing receipts against credit card statements is a type of reconciliation. Credit card receipt amounts should match statement amounts. Also, the number of receipts should match the number of credit card transactions on the statement. While manual reconciliation is an option, using accounting software can reduce the work required. Reconciliation is used by individuals with their personal finances and by companies of all sizes.
Recourse is a type of loan that allows the lender to recover against the personal assets of a party in the event of default by the borrower to the extent of the
The payoff and replacement of an existing loan with a new loan, typically under different terms. Refinancing differs from debt restructuring, which is the modification of an existing loan. There are several reasons an investor may consider refinancing an existing loan including: 1) to improve on the loan’s interest rate; 2) to extend the loan’s maturity date; 3) to change the interest rate from variable to fixed, or vice versa; or 4) to access embedded equity by increasing the loan amount. Reasons 1 through 3 above are often referred to as “rate-and-term refinance” while reason 4 may be referred to as a “cash-out refinance.” The ability of an investor to refinance a loan is dependant on a variety of factors including general market conditions, the availability of financing, the borrower's credit worthiness, and the value of the underlying property. Note however, that an investor may be constrained from refinancing a loan due to lockout provisions or prepayment penalties. Additionally, there may be costs associated with refinancing that may make it a less attractive option.
Reg A+ Offering is a Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) regulation that allows public investment in private companies up to $50 million. Like an IPO, this type of offering allows companies to raise capital by offering shares to the general public.
A person or firm that is compensated for providing investment advisory services. Contrary to a broker who is transaction based, RIAs are typically compensated based off a percentage of assets under management, and have a fiduciary responsibility to their clients. RIAs compete with mutual funds, hedge funds, and wire house firms for clients.
A regressive tax is one that is applied uniformly to consumers and thus takes a higher percentage of income from low-income earners than high-income earners. It is considered the opposite of a progressive tax, which taxes higher income earners at a higher rate than lower income earners. The United States has a progressive method of taxation with regard to its income tax, but taxes levied on goods at the point of sale are considered regressive because they are applied uniformly, regardless of the individual’s level of income.
A Regulation D Offering is a Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) regulation governing private placement exemptions that allows companies to raise capital through
Related parties transaction is a business deal or arrangement between two parties who are joined by a personal or other relationship prior to the deal.
Generally speaking, related party issues are technical and we recommend consulting with your CPA or tax attorney to understand how the “related party” rules may impact your specific situation.
A provision or clause to release certain collateral from a loan or mortgage in exchange for the borrower’s payment of a defined amount.
In a tax deferred (aka 1031 exchange or like-kind) exchange, the property being sold or disposed of is referred to as the relinquished property.
In the context of commercial real estate, rent bumps refer to periodic adjustments on the rental rates pursuant to a lease, typically stated as a fixed percentage of the rents currently in place.
A rent payment arrangement is a temporary arrangement for someone to rent a property. The agreement is a contract that lists the terms for renting the property. This includes the monthly amount of rent, the due date for payments each month, deposit, late fees, use of the property, renter expectations, end of agreement expectations, parking, etc. A rental agreement is a legal contract but is different from a lease. A lease is a fixed term for renting a property. There are also high penalties for breaking the lease (i.e., vacating the property before the lease term ends).
Rent roll is a distinctive document providing information as to the current re-occurring revenue gained from existing leases. The rent roll is the property owner’s representation of the rental income gathered from the underlying real estate asset, and serves as the most important document when valuing income generating property, like an apartment.
Rentable Square Footage equals the usable square footage plus the tenant’s pro rata share of the building common areas, such as
Renters insurance is stand-alone insurance available to renters of apartments, single family homes, duplexes, condos, or townhomes. It protects the insured against property damage, liability, and provides living expenses in the event the structure becomes unlivable. The insurance does not protect the structure, which is what homeowners insurance does and is required by the landlord. The cost of renter’s insurance is dependent on which possessions the insured is covering and how much liability protection they need. Liability protection covers what the landlord’s insurance does not. The living expense portion is often set by the insurance company and can’t be changed.
Replacement property, during a tax deferred (aka 1031 exchange or like-kind) exchange, is the property being purchased or acquired.
Replacement Property InterestsTM is the term Realized uses to describe equity ownership in large properties by multiple 1031 exchange investors through Delaware Statutory Trusts (DST) and Tenant-In-Common (TIC)
Reserve requirements are the amount of money that banks must hold to cover customer deposits and liabilities. The reserve is meant to protect banks against sudden withdrawals. Reserve requirements are set by the Fed’s board of governors. In addition to reserve requirements, the board has two other monetary tools — open market operations and the discount rate. The reserve requirement amount is adjusted each year. Banks with deposits of less than $16 million are considered to have no reserve requirements. Those with $16 million to $122.3 million in deposits have 3%, and those with over $122.3 million have 10%.
Residual income can be split into three categories — personal income, business income, and equity valuation. Personal residual income, also called excess income or disposable income, is money left over after all bills have been paid. This income can be put into savings or spent on non-essential items. Having residual income can help in getting a loan. It shows that a person has more than enough money coming in every month to pay their bills. This is likely to lead to a loan approval (assuming the person doesn’t have high debt) if the individual can show that their income and bills will remain consistent. The more residual income a person has, the less likely they are to default on the loan. Choosing candidates with higher residual income reduces default risk for lenders. In business, residual income is (the net) income generated above the required rate of return for the business. It is excess income after the business has paid all of its bills. Technically, it is the operating profit remaining after all costs of capital has been paid. The cost of capital is incurred to generate revenues for the business. In this way, residual business income is similar to its personal residual income counterpart. However, businesses may invest money and earn additional income that doesn’t require labor or raw materials. It is only the invested capital that is needed to earn additional income. This type of income is also called passive income. Some examples of passive income include stocks, bonds, royalties, and real estate. All are considered investments. They are not without risks, however. Companies evaluate whether it is worth taking the risk based on the expected returns. The equity valuation of residual income is basically the same equation we’ve been using: Net income minus the cost of capital (equity charge). To determine the equity valuation, we must look at what goes into the equity charge. It is the value of equity capital multiplied by the cost of equity (required rate of return on equity).
A retail investor is any individual who purchases and sells securities for his or her own investment portfolio. Similar to institutional investors, retail investors have the ability to engage in stock and bond markets, mutual funds, exchange traded funds, and other alternative investments, conducting trades through brokerage firms or saving accounts. Note, however, that a retail investor may need to meet a certain level of accreditation to participate in some investments, such as private equity, hedge funds, and certain private placements.
Retained earnings are earnings reinvested into a company to pay down debt or help it grow. A company may use its retained earnings to grow by investing in various capital projects that show a high probability of success. When a company’s stock price increases, its EPS (earnings per share) also increase. For investors, this is a sign that the company is making efficient use of its retained earnings. If EPS is not increasing, it may be a sign that the company isn’t making the most use of its retained earnings. In that case, investors will expect a dividend, given the lack of appreciation in the stock price. A company with a static or declining stock price that does not pay dividends may find it difficult to attract investors.
Return on equity (ROE) is a percentage-based performance metric designed to determine how well a company is putting the equity investments it has gained to work in order to increase company value. In other words, it reveals if management is providing a good return on equity. It is measured by dividing net income by total company equity, and is best used when compared to the ROE of other firms within the same industry. ROE is calculated by dividing annual net income by shareholder equity: ROE = (annual) Net Income / Shareholder’s Equity Net income is found on the income statement, while equity is found on the balance sheet. Since equity is assets minus debt, ROE shows how well a company is able to turn assets into profits. Another way to look at ROE is how many dollars of profit are you getting back for each dollar of equity put into the company.
Return on investment measures the amount of return on an investment relative to the investment’s cost. To calculate ROI, the benefit (or return) of an investment is
A reverse exchange Refers to method of executing a tax-deferred exchange (aka 1031 exchange or like-kind exchange) in which the exchanger or taxpayer acquires the
A contractual obligation by the owner of an asset to offer a sale to the rights holder before negotiating with any third party. Often included in tenant-landlord contracts, right of first offer provisions allow a tenant to make a reasonable offer before anyone else, with the intent of not having to move his or her business. Although similar to a right of first refusal, a right of first offer is thought to favor a seller, as it can reduce transaction costs while locking in a serious buyer. In addition, a seller has the option to deny the right holder’s offer, with the opportunity to negotiate with other buyers. In the event that negotiations with other buyers are unsuccessful, the seller may come back to the rights holder to pursue a new offer.
The right of first refusal is the contractual right, but not obligation, to enter into a buy-sell transaction with the owner of an asset before any other third party. In commercial real estate, the right of first refusal allows an interested party to buy a property before the seller negotiates any other offer. In the scenario that the party with the right of refusal declines to buy, the seller is then free to negotiate and sell with other interested parties.
Right of redemption is the legal right of any borrower who owns real estate to reclaim his or her property, given that the owner has paid off the necessary obligation or lien that caused the foreclosure to begin with.
Risk adjusted returns is the measure of the return on an investment relative to the expected risk of that investment, over a specific period.
Risk premium is the minimum incremental yield by which the expected return on a risky asset must exceed the known return on a risk-free asset in order to
Defined as an evaluation of an individual or organization’s willingness to take risks, as well as the threats to which an organization is exposed. Risk profiles are important for determining which asset classes and allocations are appropriate for a portfolio. This risk profile signals the tolerable level of risk that is accepted. A corporation’s risk profile attempts to determine how a willingness to take risk will affect overall decision-making strategy.
Introduced in 2012, Rule 144A reduces the amount of time a qualified institutional buyer must hold privately placed securities from 2 years to six months for a company that reports to the SEC or a year for a company that does not. The introduction of this rule has substantially enhanced liquidity in the market for private placement securities. The modification was introduced to acknowledge that sophisticated institutional buyers do not need the same protections an individual investor requires on the open market.
The rule of 72 is a quick and easy mental calculation that tells you the number of years it will take for an investment to double, given some rate of interest. The calculation is based on compound interest, which calculates accumulated. The rule of 72 can be used on investments and inflation. As an example, an investment earning 8% interest will double in 72/8 = 9 years. For inflation, it tells you the number of years a dollar amount will halve, as inflation eats away at the non-invested savings. For example, 3% inflation means it will take 72/3 = 24 years to halve the value of a specific amount of savings.