The Social Security tax, or Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance (OASDI) Program, which is the official name of social security, is a payroll tax levied against employees and employers. When you look at your next paycheck, you’ll see a deduction for FICA. FICA stands for (FICA) Federal Insurance Contributions Act, which is the fund that Social Security taxes are paid into. Self-employed people also pay into Social Security through self-employment taxes, which are mandated by the Self-Employed Contributions Act (SECA).
The 2020 Social Security tax rate is set at 12.4% and is paid 50/50 between employees and employers. Self-employed people must pay the entire 12.4% Social Security tax.