# A 1031 Exchange Example

## The Ron and Maggie Story

Consider the case of Ron and Maggie1, a couple who bought a modest apartment complex in California a decade ago for \$1,500,000.  They contributed \$500,000 of their personal funds and secured the remaining \$1,000,000 with a mortgage.

### Purchase Price

 Cash Equity Paid by Investor \$500,000 Mortgage Financing \$1,000,000 Purchase Price \$1,500,000
Step
1

Over the course of several years, the adjusted basis of the property owned by Ron and Maggie could resemble the following:

 Purchase Price \$1,500,000 PLUS: Acquisition Costs (Example: Title Insurance) \$10,000 PLUS: Capital Improvements (Example: New Roof) \$65,000 LESS: Depreciation Taken During Ownership \$(400,000) LESS: Deferred Capital Gains \$- EQUALS: Adjusted Tax Basis at Sale \$1,175,000
Step
2

### Calculate Realized Gain

Ron and Maggie are contemplating selling their property, which they believe could be sold for \$2,850,000.  If they factor \$50,000 in closing costs, their “realized gain” may look like this:

Realized Gain

 Sales Price of Relinquished Property \$2,850,000 LESS: Closing Costs on Relinquished Property \$(50,000) EQUALS: Net Selling Price \$2,800,000 LESS: Adjusted Tax Basis (From Step 1) \$(1,175,000) EQUALS: Realized Gain \$1,625,000

Keep in mind that the actual gain differs from cash obtained through the sale. Assuming the mortgage has been reduced to \$800,000, the net cash received could be represented as follows:

 Sales Price \$2,850,000 LESS: Balance on Mortgage to Pay Off \$(800,000) LESS: Closing Costs on Relinquished Property \$(50,000) EQUALS: Net Cash Received on Sale \$2,000,000
Step
3

### Estimate Potential Tax Liability

Next, Ron and Maggie estimate their potential tax liability from the property sale. With an assumed Realized Gain of \$1,625,000 (refer to the earlier calculation), the sale is expected to put the couple in the highest tax bracket, and their possible tax liabilities could look like this:

 Federal Capital Gains Tax1 20.0% \$245,000 Federal Tax on Depreciation Recapture2 25.0% \$100,000 Affordable Care Act Surtax 3.8% \$61,750 State Capital Gains Tax (CA)3 12.3% \$199,875 TAXES DUE (Effective Tax Rate)4 37.3% \$606,625

(1) Federal Capital Gains equal to Realized Gain less depreciation taken multiplied by the applicable rate.
(2) Based on amount of depreciation taken during ownership of the property. In this example, the amount is based on \$400,000 of depreciation taken.
(3) Rate varies by state. Example assumes California.
(4) Effective tax rate depicted as a percentage of Realized Gain of \$1,625,000 (from Step 2).

Step
4

Through the use of a 1031 exchange, Ron and Maggie could potentially defer 37.3% in taxes and preserve all of the profit from the sale of their property.  This means they would potentially have more than \$600,000 in additional equity to reinvest!

 With 1031 Exchange Without 1031 Exchange Net Proceeds from Sale \$2,000,000 \$2,000,000 LESS: Taxes Paid \$- \$(606,625) EQUALS: Equity Available to Reinvest \$2,000,000 \$1,393,375

How Much Time do I Have?

There are two important deadlines; if either are missed, taxes will be owed. The IRS does not grant extensions on these deadlines.  You have 45-days from the date you sell your property to identify potential Replacement Property(ies).  You have 180-days from the date you sell your property to purchase your Replacement Property(ies).

In order to defer all of your capital gains taxes, the Replacement Property must have a purchase price and mortgage balance equal to or greater than the Relinquished Property being sold. Investors are not required to reinvest 100% of their sales proceeds in replacement property. This is known as a “Partial Exchange” and the portion the exchange proceeds that are not reinvested are referred to as “Boot” and are subject to taxes.

Ron and Maggie believe their property can be sold for \$2,850,000. Assuming the mortgage balance will be \$800,000, their evaluation of a suitable Replacement Property would look like this:

 Replacement Property Relinquished Property Purchase Price \$3,975,000 > OR = Sale Price: \$2,850,000 LESS: New Mortgage: 2,000,000 > OR = LESS: Mortgage Bal.: 800,000 ADD: Closing Costs** 25,000 LESS: Closing Costs: 50,000 EQUALS: Proceeds \$2,000,000 > OR = EQUALS: Proceeds: \$2,000,000

Closing Costs are considered part of your equity

In general, any type of real estate investment property type may qualify for an exchange, except your primary residence. The IRS considers all “Investment Properties” to be “Like-Kind.”

• Properties do not need to be the same type. For example, raw land can be exchanged for an office building, a warehouse can be exchanged for NNN retail property, or a rental house for a Replacement Property Interest in a 300-unit apartment complex.
• Properties can be located anywhere in the US. For example, a property in California can be exchanged for one in Texas.
• An exchange can be multiple properties. For example, you may sell one property and exchange into three and vice versa.

1. Ron and Maggie are a fictitious couple used here and in our 1031 Ebook.

### The 1031 Investor's Guidebook

Tackle the art and science of completing your 1031 exchange.

By providing your email and phone number, you are opting to receive communications from Realized. If you receive a text message and choose to stop receiving further messages, reply STOP to immediately unsubscribe. Msg & Data rates may apply. To manage receiving emails from Realized visit the Manage Preferences link in any email received.